Saturday, May 25, 2019
According to Marx, How Does Capitalism Alienate Workers?
SS 2029 Basic Sociology 2011-2012 (Semester A) Individual Term Paper CHEUNG Kai-HO (52596777) 7. According to Marx, how does capitalism alienate actors? How did Marx feel that workers could overcome their lunacy? 1. plume Alienation, a term used to describe the feeling of no connection with others or the separation from organizeer attachment. When it comes to sociologist aspect, especially on Marxism, this term describes the stage of losing cardinals identity. To Karl Marxs belief, Alienation means the loss of control over the process and product of work (Bell, 1959).Thus, under the capitalism, workers argon alienated by the business dodge. 2. Content A First and foremost, from Marxs point of view, monomania is the veritable(a)tual outcome of capitalism. Capitalism itself is based on a mode of production, as state by Marx. The capitalists own the capital, materials, properties for the production, as well as the products. The capitalists go out then put the products in exch ange with money and hence, gain profit. As capitalists can ensconce the salaries of workers, they go out plausibly pay as little as they can, so as to gain the largest profit.Without the effect of decision, workers absorb no choice but to score their livings by selling their labor haul. These create what indicated by Marx as the capitalist mode of production. Marx besides explained that capitalists ar the bourgeoisie class epoch workers ar the task class. Production process and output are controlled by bourgeoisie. Workers grant little say on their own will. As mentioned by Michael Curtis, man is enslaved by the system of goods and commodities that he produces.Therefore, capitalism can gain the domination over the production as well as the workers and trigger alienation. In Marxs vision, there are four aspects in his theory of alienation. According to his writing, economic & philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, alienation means that workers are alienated from the process o f production, the products they produced, species being and other workers. a) In the first off aspect, alienation of workers and process of production, workers are alienated from the work itself.As mentioned above, workers have to work under the capitalist mode of production, which means that they have little or even no say on how they should carry out the process of work. Unlike other professions, workers cannot decide working hours, salaries, working offices they are involved. Take Jorn Bramanns fount as an illustration, artists relatively have greater freedom on how they want to work. Not only do they have the choice of working hour, but besides the working direction. Therefore, workers are alienated for the work they are involved.They cannot make the decision on the way they work. Besides, workers are alienated under the process of production as capitalism follow the using of division of labor. Take a car factory as an example, the products, which obviously cars, consists of a great number of components. For example, engines, wheels, doors, head lights, establish view mirrors. The process of producing a car is apparently complicate however, after the using of division of labor, the work process is then become easier. Each worker should be responsible for one repeated part only.Thus, Marx noticed the problem in this kind of production. He mentioned that alienated workers have to carry out repeated, little interesting, machine-like rigid procedure. They have to work in same position on the lines of production. Marx saw this phenomenon as domination. Workers are also forced to use machinery so as to perform production easily but Marx again noticed a problem in it. He believed that workers are no longer the user of machines while machines are designed to be extensions of workers. Hence, workers are eventually losing themselves from the repeated working method.Alienation is then sparked off by capitalisms way of production. b) In the piece aspect, alien ation of workers and their products, workers cannot decide what they produce. In the past, such as medieval age, blacksmiths, bakery owners, clothes makers and many other producers could decide what they produce, how they produce, as well as the temperament of the products. The most important part is that, the final outputs of production belonged to the producers, whether sell them or not was totally depended on them.But in Marxs time, factory owners, which mean capitalists, paid money to workers in return of labor force to carry out productions. Let aside the boring rigid production actions, the products belonged to the factory owners, not the workers. Workers had no control over the products and what products should they produce. So, Marx stated that this was one of the four aspects of alienation. Furthermore, this alienation also creates a negative effect on workers. In Marxs writing economic & Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, he saidAll these consequences are implied in the s tatement that the worker is related to the product of labor as to an alien object. For on this premise it is clear that the more the worker spends himself, the more powerful becomes the alien world of objects which he creates over and against himself, the poorer he himself his inner world becomes, the less belongs to him as his own. (Economic & Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844) We can see that Marx believed that workers labor force become an external object that is alien to them. This external object will be a hostile forceThe alienation of the worker in his product means not only that his labor becomes an object, an external existence, but that it exists outside him, independently, as something alien to him, and that it becomes a power on its own confronting him. It means that the life which he has conferred on the object confronts him as something hostile and alien. (Economic & Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844) Thus, capitalism will spark off alienation towards workers. The very products they produced will be taken away from capitalists and, as a result, become a hostile force to them. ) In third aspect, alienation of workers and their species being, workers are being separated from the nature spirit known as human nature. What makes human so unique is that, we have our own special nature. Human have personal wills and consciousness. We can create things by following our own belief, will, preference. Human are also fond of beautiful things. Marx discussed some this topic in his Economic & Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. He believed that human can produce not only for physical needs, but also for their desires. Besides, human produce universally and can form products according to the law of beauty.When workers need to follow the capitalist mode of production, the above species being will be deprived. With the fixed working position and repeated procedures, workers no longer produce according to their own wills or preferences. Marx said Mans species-being, both nature and his spiritual species- dimension, into a being alien to him, into a means of his individual existence. It estranges from man his own body, as well as external nature and his spiritual aspect, his human aspect. (Economic & Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844) This saying represents what Marx thought about those alienated workers.Capitalism put workers under the same routine of productions. Workers are merely a tool of capitalists to make profit. All the human nature, creativity, workers decision and preferences are neglected. Workers have to work as ordered by their employers. This is what alienation on workers and species being means. d) In forth aspect, alienation of workers and other workers, alliance amongst them will also be alienated. What Marx believed was that, workers are alienated by capitalists and eventually become the goods on the trading market.As capitalists own factories, they can make decision about who they want to hire. Thus, workers are first selecte d to work in the factories. Then, throughout the working period, workers are usually monitored by supervisors. Once a worker is found to violate the factory as well as the capitalists interest, he or she is no longer hired. As a result, workers have to work in a commercial, capitalist atmosphere. The kindred between workers is worsened. Another important effect is that, relationship between workers will deteriorate or even become hostile under the capitalist working environment.As the capitalist can lay off any one as they desire, workers will become a competitors of each other. Some may take hostile attitude towards each other as they want to stay in the factory to earn a living. This alienation is against Marxs hope as people with same interest, same class will be against each other. So, Marx pointed out that alienation not only cause effect on workers themselves, but also the relationship with others. 3. Content B With a view to the alienation, Marx believed that it can only be eliminated by changing the whole system.Marx pointed out the cause of alienation lies on the situation system. The relationship between workers and employers are obviously money related. In this spot system, workers do not own the factory, input materials, machines or other prerequisite. Properties are in camera owned. Therefore, Marx called these workers as proletariat class. To tackle this problem, Marx had one method, the only method To completely abolish the private ownership and property system. With the destruction of this money or property system, collectivism should be set up. Marx once said that (2) Communism (? still political in nature democratic or despotic (? ) with the abolition of the state, yet still incomplete, and being still affected by private property, i. e. , by the estrangement of man. In both forms communism already is aware of being reintegration or return of man to himself, the transcendence of human self-estrangement. Marx clearly stated that commun ism will bring workers back to human essence. A new society will be created. Workers no longer need to complete with each other. Species being, products will not be alienated. To achieve this change, revolution is a choice for Marxists.As the authority will not easily change the original way of ruling, capitalist will still exist. Michael Curtis, the writer of Marxism The Inner Dialogues, said that Communism will overcome alienation through the creation of a community which ends the cleavage between production and consumption, intellectual and manual labor. Hence, the only solution to demolish alienation is communism, while communism itself can be achieve by revolution. 4. Conclusion All in all, alienation is a eventual outcome of capitalism. With the private ownership and money system, the relationship between workers and employers evolve to commercial relation.With the usage of division of labor as well as the assembly line, workers are forced to repeat the same procedure of prod uction. They will thus be alienated with the work itself and their species being. Besides, workers relationship with other will deteriorate. Notwithstanding the effects of alienation, Marx believed that it can be eliminated by demolishing the property system. Revolution is the answer to this. Reference * Economic & Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 by Marx, K. (Between April and August1844), fromhttp//www. marxists. rg/archive/marx/works/1844/manuscripts/preface. htm * Curtis, M. (1997). Marxism The Inner Dialogues (pp. 129-142) * Ollman, B. (1976). Alienation Marxs Conception of Man in Capitalist order (2nd ed. ) (Chapter 22) * Marx on Alienation by University of Regina- Department of Sociology and Social Studies (2002, September 30), fromhttp//uregina. ca/gingrich/s3002. htm * Marx Capitalism and Alienation by Jorn Bramann, fromhttp//faculty. frostburg. edu/phil/forum/Marx. htm * Themes, Arguments, and Ideas by Sparknotes, fromhttp//www. sparknotes. com/philosophy/marx/themes. html